PHP Cheat Sheet

Our PHP cheat sheet goals to assist anybody attempting to get proficient in or enhance their information of PHP. The programming language is among the many hottest in net growth. It’s within the coronary heart of WordPress, the world’s hottest CMS, and likewise types the bottom of different platforms like Joomla and Drupal. (Don’t miss our comparability of the three.)

Apart from that, PHP is an Open Supply and thus free to make use of. Since its inception in 1995, it has had a number of releases. The newest model, PHP 7.2, got here out on the finish of 2017.

PHP is a server-side language, which means that it executes on the server, not within the consumer’s browser (versus, for instance, JavaScript). PHP scripts produce HTML which is then handed on to the browser for interpretation. Consequently, the consumer doesn’t see the code itself however solely the outcome.

php cheat sheetBy GgiaEsquema-proxy-internet.svg: Randomicc [CC BY-SA 3.0], from Wikimedia CommonsThe programming language is comparatively simple to study for newbies, but it surely additionally affords lots of superior prospects for veteran programmers.

For that cause, the next PHP cheat sheet is appropriate for you irrespective of the place you’re in your journey. It covers an important PHP ideas and capabilities and acts as a fast reference information for these utilizing PHP for net growth.

We’ve got rather a lot to cowl, so let’s get proper into it. If that’s not sufficient for you, we even have cheat sheets for HTML, CSS, and jQuery in addition to the aforementioned JavaScript.

PHP Cheat Sheet

PHP Cheat Sheet – The Fundamentals

We’re beginning off with the fundamentals – the right way to declare PHP in a file, write feedback and output information.

Together with PHP in a File

PHP recordsdata finish in .php. In addition to PHP itself, they’ll comprise textual content, HTML, CSS and JavaScript. To ensure that a browser to acknowledge PHP, you’ll want to wrap it in brackets: <?php and ?>. Consequently, you possibly can execute PHP in a web page:

<?php // place PHP code right here ?>

Writing Feedback

Like many different languages, PHP additionally has the flexibility so as to add feedback. That is vital for annotating your code for human readers however in a manner that the browser doesn’t attempt to execute it. In PHP, you’ve a number of methods for that:

  • // — Denotes feedback that solely span one line
  • # — One other manner of manufacturing single-line feedback
  • /*...*/ — Every part between /* and */ just isn’t executed, additionally works throughout a number of strains

A standard instance of using feedback are WordPress theme headers:

Theme Identify: Twenty Seventeen
Theme URI:
Writer: the WordPress crew
Writer URI:
Description: Twenty Seventeen brings your web site to life with header video and immersive featured photos. With a deal with enterprise websites, it options a number of sections on the entrance web page in addition to widgets, navigation and social menus, a emblem, and extra. Personalize its asymmetrical grid with a {custom} shade scheme and showcase your multimedia content material with submit codecs. Our default theme for 2017 works nice in lots of languages, for any talents, and on any gadget.
Model: 1.5
License: GNU Common Public License v2 or later
License URI:
Textual content Area: twentyseventeen
Tags: one-column, two-columns, right-sidebar, flexible-header, accessibility-ready, custom-colors, custom-header, custom-menu, custom-logo, editor-style, featured-images, footer-widgets, post-formats, rtl-language-support, sticky-post, theme-options, threaded-comments, translation-ready This theme, like WordPress, is licensed underneath the GPL.
Use it to make one thing cool, have enjoyable, and share what you have discovered with others.

Outputting Information

In PHP, information is often output utilizing echo or print. For instance, the title of this weblog submit is perhaps displayed on a web page like this:

<?php echo "<h1>PHP Cheat Sheet</h1>"; ?>

The 2 instructions echo and print are just about the identical. The one distinction is that the previous has no return worth and may take a number of parameters, whereas the latter has a return worth of 1 and may solely take one argument.

An vital be aware: Like all different PHP instructions, capabilities echo and print will not be case delicate. That signifies that while you write ECHO, EcHo, eCHO or some other variation, they’ll proceed to work. As you’ll study additional on, that doesn’t apply to all the pieces.

Writing PHP Capabilities

Capabilities are shortcuts for generally used chunks of code. They make programming a lot simpler since you don’t must re-use lengthy code snippets. As an alternative, you create them as soon as and use the shortcuts while you want them.

It’s attainable to create your personal PHP capabilities however there additionally many constructed into the programming language. A lot of this PHP cheat sheet is dedicated to that.

The essential syntax to create a perform:

perform NameOfTheFunction() { //place PHP code right here }

Fast clarification: the primary half is the perform a reputation (reminder: perform names will not be case delicate). After that, all the pieces between the curly braces is what the perform does when referred to as.

Variables and Constants

Equally to most different programming languages, PHP allows you to work with variables and constants. These are items of code that retailer completely different sorts of knowledge.

Defining Variables

To do something with variables, you first have to outline them. In PHP, you denote a variable utilizing the $ signal and assign its worth utilizing =. A typical instance:

<?php $BlogPostTitle = "PHP Cheat Sheet"; ?>

A couple of vital factors:

  • Variables want to start out with a letter or underscore (_) and may solely be comprised of alpha-numeric characters
  • PHP variables are case delicate, which means $myVar and $myvar will not be the identical factor
  • In case your variable consists of multiple phrase both write it $my_variable or $myVariable

Kinds of Information

Variables can tackle various kinds of information:

  • Integers — Integers are non-decimal numbers between -2,147,483,648 and ,147,483,647. They will need to have not less than one digit and no decimal level. Might be in decimal, hexadecimal or octal.
  • Floats — That is the identify for numbers with a decimal level or in exponential type.
  • Strings — This merely means textual content, we are going to speak about it intimately additional beneath.
  • Boolean values — Which means true/false statements.
  • Arrays — Arrays are variables that retailer a number of values. We are going to speak about them intimately additional beneath.
  • Objects — Objects retailer each information and knowledge on the right way to course of it.
  • Sources — These are references to capabilities and assets outdoors of PHP.
  • NULL — A variable that’s NULL doesn’t have any worth.

There is no such thing as a have to declare PHP variables in a sure manner. They routinely tackle the kind of the info they comprise.

Variable Scope

Variables will be accessible in several scopes, which means the a part of a script you possibly can entry them. This may be world, native and static.

Any variable declared outdoors of a perform is out there globally. Meaning it may be accessed outdoors of a perform as nicely.

Should you declare a variable inside a perform, it should have a neighborhood scope. The consequence is that it may solely be accessed inside that perform.

A manner round that is to prepend a neighborhood variable with world. That manner, it turns into a part of the worldwide scope.

perform myFunction() { world $a, $b; $b = $a - $b;

In each circumstances, the variable turns into a part of the $GLOBALS variable talked about beneath.

Lastly, it’s additionally attainable so as to add static in entrance of a neighborhood variable. That manner, it received’t be deleted after its perform is executed and will be reused.

Predefined Variables

PHP additionally comes with numerous default variables referred to as superglobals. That’s as a result of they’re accessible from wherever, no matter scope.

  • $GLOBALS — Used to entry world variables from wherever inside a PHP script
  • $_SERVER — Incorporates details about the places of headers, paths and scripts
  • $_GET — Can accumulate information that was despatched within the URL or submitted in an HTML type
  • $_POST — Used to assemble information from an HTML type and to go variables
  • $_REQUEST — Additionally collects information after submitting an HTML type

Variable-handling Capabilities

Apart from that, there are an entire bunch of capabilities to work with variables:

  • boolval — Used to retrieve the boolean worth of a variable
  • debug_zval_dump — Outputs a string illustration of an inner zend worth
  • empty — Checks whether or not a variable is empty or not
  • floatval — Get the float worth of a variable (doubleval is one other risk)
  • get_defined_vars — Returns an array of all outlined variables
  • get_resource_type — Returns the useful resource kind
  • gettype — Retrieves the variable kind
  • import_request_variables — Import GET/POST/Cookie variables into the worldwide scope
  • intval — Discover the integer worth of a variable
  • is_array — Checks whether or not a variable is an array
  • is_bool — Finds out if a variable is a boolean
  • is_callable — Confirm whether or not you possibly can name the contents of a variable as a perform
  • is_countable — Verify whether or not the contents of a variable are countable
  • is_float — Discover out if the kind of a variable is float, alternate options: is_double and is_real
  • is_int — Verify if the kind of a variable is an integer, is_integer and is_long additionally works
  • is_iterable — Confirm {that a} variable’s content material is an iterable worth
  • is_null — Checks whether or not a variable’s worth is NULL
  • is_numeric — Discover out if a variable is a quantity or a numeric string
  • is_object — Determines whether or not a variable is an object
  • is_resource — Verify if a variable is a useful resource
  • is_scalar — Exams if a variable is a scalar
  • is_string — Discover out whether or not the kind of a variable is a string
  • isset — Decide if a variable has been set and isn’t NULL
  • print_r — Supplies human-readable details about a variable
  • serialize — Generates a illustration of a price that’s storable
  • settype — Units a variable’s kind
  • strval — Retrieves the string worth of a variable
  • unserialize — Creates a PHP worth from a saved illustration
  • unset — Unsets a variable
  • var_dump — Dumps details about a variable
  • var_export — Outputs or returns a string illustration of a variable that may be parsed


Apart from variables, you may also outline constants which additionally retailer values. In distinction to variables their worth can’t be modified, it’s locked in.

In PHP you possibly can outline a continuing:

outline(identify, worth, true/false)

The primary is the identify, the second the fixed’s worth and the third parameter whether or not its identify must be case delicate (the default is false).

Constants are helpful since they can help you change the worth for a complete script in a single place as an alternative of getting to switch each occasion of it. They’re additionally world in nature, which means they are often accessed from wherever.

Apart from user-defined constants, there additionally numerous default PHP constants:

  • __LINE__ — Denotes the quantity of the present line in a file
  • __FILE__ — Is the total path and filename of the file
  • __DIR__ — The listing of the file
  • __FUNCTION__ — Identify of the perform
  • __CLASS__ — Class identify, consists of the namespace it was declared in
  • __TRAIT__ — The trait identify, additionally consists of the namespace
  • __METHOD__ —  The category methodology identify
  • __NAMESPACE__ — Identify of the present namespace

PHP Arrays – Grouped Values

Arrays are a option to set up a number of values in a single variable in order that they can be utilized collectively. Whereas capabilities are for blocks of code, arrays are for the values – a placeholder for bigger chunks of knowledge.

In PHP there are various kinds of arrays:

  • Listed arrays – Arrays which have a numeric index
  • Associative arrays – Arrays the place the keys are named
  • Multidimensional arrays – Arrays that comprise a number of different arrays

Declaring an Array in PHP

Arrays in PHP are created with the array() perform.

<?php $cms = array("WordPress", "Joomla", "Drupal");
echo "What's your favourite CMS? Is it " . $cms[0] . ", " . $cms[1] . " or " . $cms[2] . "?"; ?>

Array keys can both be strings or integers.

Array Capabilities

PHP affords a large number of default capabilities for working with arrays:

  • array_change_key_case — Adjustments all keys in an array to uppercase or lowercase
  • array_chunk — Splits an array into chunks
  • array_column — Retrieves the values from a single column in an array
  • array_combine — Merges the keys from one array and the values from one other into a brand new array
  • array_count_values — Counts all values in an array
  • array_diff — Compares arrays, returns the distinction (values solely)
  • array_diff_assoc — Compares arrays, returns the distinction (values and keys)
  • array_diff_key — Compares arrays, returns the distinction (keys solely)
  • array_diff_uassoc — Compares arrays (keys and values) by way of a consumer callback perform
  • array_diff_ukey — Compares arrays (keys solely) by way of a consumer callback perform
  • array_fill — Fills an array with values
  • array_fill_keys — Fills an array with values, specifying keys
  • array_filter — Filters the weather of an array through a callback perform
  • array_flip — Exchanges all keys in an array with their related values
  • array_intersect — Evaluate arrays and return their matches (values solely)
  • array_intersect_assoc — Evaluate arrays and return their matches (keys and values)
  • array_intersect_key — Evaluate arrays and return their matches (keys solely)
  • array_intersect_uassoc — Evaluate arrays through a user-defined callback perform (keys and values)
  • array_intersect_ukey — Evaluate arrays through a user-defined callback perform (keys solely)
  • array_key_exists — Checks if a specified key exists in an array, various: key_exists
  • array_keys — Returns all keys or a subset of keys in an array
  • array_map — Applies a callback to the weather of a given array
  • array_merge — Merge one or a number of arrays
  • array_merge_recursive — Merge a number of arrays recursively
  • array_multisort — Types a number of or multi-dimensional arrays
  • array_pad — Inserts a specified variety of gadgets (with a specified worth) into an array
  • array_pop — Deletes a component from the top of an array
  • array_product — Calculate the product of all values in an array
  • array_push — Push one or a number of parts to the top of the array
  • array_rand — Choose a number of random entries out of an array
  • array_reduce — Cut back the array to a single string utilizing a user-defined perform
  • array_replace — Replaces parts within the first array with values from following arrays
  • array_replace_recursive — Recursively replaces parts from later arrays into the primary array
  • array_reverse — Returns an array in reverse order
  • array_search — Searches the array for a given worth and returns the primary key if profitable
  • array_shift — Shifts a component from the start of an array
  • array_slice — Extracts a slice of an array
  • array_splice — Removes a portion of the array and replaces it
  • array_sum — Calculate the sum of the values in an array
  • array_udiff — Evaluate arrays and return the distinction utilizing a consumer perform (values solely)
  • array_udiff_assoc — Evaluate arrays and return the distinction utilizing a default and a consumer perform (keys and values)
  • array_udiff_uassoc — Evaluate arrays and return the distinction utilizing two consumer capabilities (values and keys)
  • array_uintersect — Evaluate arrays and return the matches through consumer perform (values solely)
  • array_uintersect_assoc — Evaluate arrays and return the matches through a default consumer perform (keys and values)
  • array_uintersect_uassoc — Evaluate arrays and return the matches through two consumer capabilities (keys and values)
  • array_unique — Removes duplicate values from an array
  • array_unshift — Provides a number of parts to the start of an array
  • array_values — Returns all values of an array
  • array_walk — Applies a consumer perform to each component in an array
  • array_walk_recursive — Recursively applies a consumer perform to each component of an array
  • arsort — Types an associative array in descending order in line with the worth
  • asort — Types an associative array in ascending order in line with the worth
  • compact — Create an array containing variables and their values
  • depend — Rely all parts in an array, alternatively use sizeof
  • present — Returns the present component in an array, another is pos
  • every — Return the present key and worth pair from an array
  • finish — Set the inner pointer to the final component of an array
  • extract — Import variables from an array into the present image desk
  • in_array — Checks if a price exists in an array
  • key — Fetches a key from an array
  • krsort — Types an associative array by key in reverse order
  • ksort — Types an associative array by key
  • listing — Assigns variables as in the event that they have been an array
  • natcasesort — Types an array utilizing a “pure order” algorithm unbiased of case
  • natsort — Types an array utilizing a “pure order” algorithm
  • subsequent — Advance the inner pointer of an array
  • prev — Transfer the inner array pointer backwards
  • vary — Creates an array from a spread of parts
  • reset — Set the inner array pointer to its first component
  • rsort — Kind an array in reverse order
  • shuffle — Shuffle an array
  • kind — Types an listed array in ascending order
  • uasort — Types an array with a user-defined comparability perform
  • uksort — Prepare an array by keys utilizing a user-defined comparability perform
  • usort — Categorize an array by values utilizing a comparability perform outlined by the consumer

PHP Strings

In programming speech strings are nothing greater than textual content. As we have now settled earlier, they’re additionally a legitimate worth for variables.

Defining Strings

In PHP there are a number of methods to outline strings:

  • Single quotes — That is the only manner. Simply wrap your textual content in ' markers and PHP will deal with it as a string.
  • Double quotes — As a substitute you should use ". If you do, it’s attainable to make use of the escape characters beneath to show particular characters.
  • heredoc — Start a string with <<< and an identifier, then put the string in a brand new line. Shut it in one other line by repeating the identifier. heredoc behaves like double-quoted strings.
  • nowdoc — Is what heredoc is for double-quoted strings however for single quotes. It really works the identical manner and eliminates the necessity for escape characters.

Observe: Strings can comprise variables, arrays, and objects.

Escape Characters

  • n — Linefeed
  • r — Carriage return
  • t — Horizontal tab
  • v — Vertical tab
  • e — Escape
  • f — Kind feed
  • — Backslash
  • $ — Greenback signal
  • /' — Single quote
  • " — Double quote
  • [0-7]{1,3} — Character in octal notation
  • x[0-9A-Fa-f]{1,2} — Character in hexadecimal notation
  • u{[0-9A-Fa-f]+} — String as UTF-Eight illustration

String Capabilities

  • addcslashes() — Returns a string with backslashes in entrance of specified characters
  • addslashes() — Returns a string with backslashes in entrance of characters that should be escaped
  • bin2hex() — Converts a string of ASCII characters to hexadecimal values
  • chop() — Removes house or different characters from the precise finish of a string
  • chr() — Returns a personality from a specified ASCII worth
  • chunk_split() — Splits a string right into a collection of smaller chunks
  • convert_cyr_string() — Converts a string from a Cyrillic character set to a different
  • convert_uudecode() — Decodes a uuencoded string
  • convert_uuencode() — Encodes a string utilizing uuencode
  • count_chars() — Returns details about the characters in a string
  • crc32() — Calculates a 32-bit CRC for a string
  • crypt() — Returns a hashed string
  • echo() — Outputs one or a number of strings
  • explode() — Breaks down a string into an array
  • fprintf() — Writes a formatted string to a specified output stream
  • get_html_translation_table() — Returns the interpretation desk utilized by htmlspecialchars() and htmlentities()
  • hebrev() — Transforms Hebrew textual content to visible textual content
  • hebrevc() — Converts Hebrew textual content to visible textual content and implements HTML line breaks
  • hex2bin() — Translate hexadecimal values to ASCII characters
  • html_entity_decode() — Turns HTML entities to characters
  • htmlentities() — Converts characters to HTML entities
  • htmlspecialchars_decode() — Transforms particular HTML entities to characters
  • htmlspecialchars() — Switches predefined characters to HTML entities
  • implode() — Retrieves a string from the weather of an array, similar as be part of()
  • lcfirst() — Adjustments a string’s first character to lowercase
  • levenshtein() — Calculates the Levenshtein distance between two strings
  • localeconv() — Returns details about numeric and financial formatting for the locale
  • ltrim() — Removes areas or different characters from the left aspect of a string
  • md5() — Calculates the MD5 hash of a string and returns it
  • md5_file() — Calculates the MD5 hash of a file
  • metaphone() — Supplies the metaphone key of a string
  • money_format() — Returns a string as a forex string
  • nl_langinfo() — Offers particular locale data
  • nl2br() — Inserts HTML line breaks for every new line in a string
  • number_format() — Codecs a quantity together with grouped 1000’s
  • ord() — Returns the ASCII worth of a string’s first character
  • parse_str() — Parses a string into variables
  • print() — Outputs one or a number of strings
  • printf() — Outputs a formatted string
  • quoted_printable_decode() — Converts a quoted-printable string to 8-bit binary
  • quoted_printable_encode() — Goes from 8-bit string to a quoted-printable string
  • quotemeta() — Returns a string with a backslash earlier than metacharacters
  • rtrim() — Strips whitespace or different characters from the precise aspect of a string
  • setlocale() — Units locale data
  • sha1() — Calculates a string’s SHA-1 hash
  • sha1_file() — Does the identical for a file
  • similar_text() — Determines the similarity between two strings
  • soundex() — Calculates the soundex key of a string
  • sprintf() — Returns a formatted string
  • sscanf() — Parses enter from a string in line with a specified format
  • str_getcsv() — Parses a CSV string into an array
  • str_ireplace() — Replaces specified characters in a string with specified replacements (case-insensitive)
  • str_pad() — Pads a string to a specified size
  • str_repeat() — Repeats a string a preset variety of instances
  • str_replace() — Replaces specified characters in a string (case-sensitive)
  • str_rot13() — Performs ROT13 encoding on a string
  • str_shuffle() — Randomly shuffles the characters in a string
  • str_split() — Splits strings into arrays
  • str_word_count() — Returns the variety of phrases in a string
  • strcasecmp() — Case-insensitive comparability of two strings
  • strcmp() — Binary protected string comparability (case delicate)
  • strcoll() — Compares two strings based mostly on locale
  • strcspn() — Returns the variety of characters present in a string earlier than the prevalence of specified characters
  • strip_tags() — Removes HTML and PHP tags from a string
  • stripcslashes() — Reverse of addcslashes()
  • stripslashes() — Reverse of addslashes()
  • stripos() — Finds the place of the primary prevalence of a substring inside a string (case insensitive)
  • stristr() — Case-insensitive model of strstr()
  • strlen() — Returns the size of a string
  • strnatcasecmp() — Case-insensitive comparability of two strings utilizing a “pure order” algorithm
  • strnatcmp() — Identical because the aforementioned however case delicate
  • strncasecmp() — String comparability of an outlined variety of characters (case insensitive)
  • strncmp() — Identical as above however case-sensitive
  • strpbrk() — Searches a string for any variety of characters
  • strpos() — Returns the place of the primary prevalence of a substring in a string (case delicate)
  • strrchr() — Finds the final prevalence of a string inside one other string
  • strrev() — Reverses a string
  • strripos() — Finds the place of the final prevalence of a string’s substring (case insensitive)
  • strrpos() — Identical as strripos() however case delicate
  • strspn() — The variety of characters in a string with solely characters from a specified listing
  • strstr() — Case-sensitive seek for the primary prevalence of a string inside one other string
  • strtok() — Splits a string into smaller chunks
  • strtolower() — Converts all characters in a string to lowercase
  • strtoupper() — Identical however for uppercase letters
  • strtr() — Interprets sure characters in a string, various: strchr()
  • substr() — Returns a specified a part of a string
  • substr_compare() — Compares two strings from a specified begin place as much as a sure size, optionally case delicate
  • substr_count() — Counts the variety of instances a substring happens inside a string
  • substr_replace() — Replaces a substring with one thing else
  • trim() — Removes house or different characters from either side of a string
  • ucfirst() — Transforms the primary character of a string to uppercase
  • ucwords() — Converts the primary character of each phrase in a string to uppercase
  • vfprintf() — Writes a formatted string to a specified output stream
  • vprintf() — Outputs a formatted string
  • vsprintf() — Writes a formatted string to a variable
  • wordwrap() — Shortens a string to a given variety of characters

PHP Operators

Operators can help you carry out operations with values, arrays and variables. There are a number of differing kinds.

Arithmetic Operators

Your commonplace mathematic operators.

  • + — Addition
  • - — Subtraction
  • * — Multiplication
  • / — Division
  • % — Modulo (the rest of worth divided by one other)
  • ** — Exponentiation

Task Operators

In addition to the usual project operator (=), you even have the next choices:

  • += — a += b is similar as a = a + b
  • -= — a -= b is similar as a = a – b
  • *= — a *= b is similar as a = a * b
  • /= — a /= b is similar as a = a / b
  • %= — a %= b is similar as a = a % b

Comparability Operators

  • == — Equal
  • === — Equivalent
  • != — Not equal
  • <> — Not equal
  • !== — Not an identical
  • < — Lower than
  • > — Larger than
  • <= — Lower than or equal to
  • >= — Larger than or equal to
  • <=> — Lower than, equal to, or higher than

Logical Operators

  • and — And
  • or — Or
  • xor — Unique or
  • ! — Not
  • && — And
  • || — Or

Bitwise Operators

  • & — And
  • | — Or (inclusive or)
  • ^ — Xor (unique or)
  • ~ — Not
  • << — Shift left
  • >> — Shift proper

Error Management Operator

You need to use the @ signal to stop expressions from producing error messages. That is typically vital for safety causes, for instance to maintain confidential data protected.

Execution Operator

PHP helps one execution operator, which is `` (backticks). These will not be single-quotes! PHP will try to execute the contents of the backticks as a shell command.

Increment/Decrement Operators

  • ++$v — Increments a variable by one, then returns it
  • $v++ — Returns a variable, then increments it by one
  • --$v — Decrements the variable by one, returns it afterward
  • $v-- — Returns the variable then decrements it by one

String Operators

  • . — Used to concatenate (imply mix) arguments
  • .= — Used to append the argument on the precise to the left-side argument

Loops in PHP

Loops are quite common in programming. They can help you run by way of the identical block of code underneath completely different circumstances. PHP has a number of completely different ones.

For Loop

This sort goes by way of a block of code a specified variety of instances:

for (beginning counter worth; ending counter worth; increment by which to extend) { // code to execute goes right here

Foreach Loop

A loop utilizing foreach runs by way of every component in an array:

foreach ($InsertYourArrayName as $worth) { // code to execute goes right here

Whereas Loop

Loops by way of a block of code so long as a specified situation is true.

whereas (situation that should apply) { // code to execute goes right here

Do…Whereas Loop

The ultimate PHP loop runs a code snippet as soon as, then repeats the loop so long as the given situation is true.

do { // code to execute goes right here;
} whereas (situation that should apply);

Conditional Statements

If/else statements are just like loops. They’re statements for operating code solely underneath sure circumstances. You’ve got a number of choices:

If Assertion

Executes code if one situation is true.

if (situation) { // code to execute if situation is met


Runs a chunk of code if a situation is true and one other if it’s not.

if (situation) { // code to execute if situation is met
} else { // code to execute if situation just isn't met


Executes completely different code snippets for greater than two situations.

if (situation) { // code to execute if situation is met
} elseif (situation) { // code to execute if this situation is met
} else { // code to execute if not one of the situations are met

Change Assertion

Selects one in every of a number of blocks of code to execute.

change (n) { case x: code to execute if n=x; break; case y: code to execute if n=y; break; case z: code to execute if n=z; break; // add extra circumstances as wanted default: code to execute if n is neither of the above;

Working with Kinds in PHP

PHP is usually used for dealing with net types. Specifically, the aforementioned $_GET and $_POST assist to gather information despatched through a type. Each are capable of catch values from enter fields, nevertheless, their utilization differs.

Utilizing GET vs POST

GET collects information through URL parameters. Meaning all variable names and their values are contained within the web page handle.

The benefit of that is that you just’re capable of bookmark the knowledge. Understand that it additionally signifies that the knowledge is seen to everybody. For that cause, GET just isn’t appropriate for delicate data reminiscent of passwords. It additionally limits the quantity of information that may be despatched in ca 2000 characters.

POST, alternatively, makes use of the HTTP POST methodology to go on variables. This makes the info invisible to 3rd events, as it’s despatched within the HTTP physique. You aren’t capable of bookmark it.

With POST, there are not any limits to the quantity of knowledge you possibly can ship. Apart from that, it additionally has superior performance and is subsequently most popular by builders.

Kind Safety

Crucial concern in the case of net types is safety. If not arrange correctly, they’re susceptible to cross-scripting assaults. The hackers add scripts to unsecured net types to make use of them for their very own goal.

PHP additionally affords instruments to thwart these assaults, specifically:

  • htmlspecialchars()
  • trim()
  • stripslashes()

You’ll discover that we have now encountered all of those perform within the earlier part on strings. If you embody them within the script that collects the shape information, you possibly can successfully strip dangerous scripts of the characters they want for functioning, rendering them unusable.

Required Fields, Error Messages and Information Validation

Apart from that, PHP is ready to outline required fields (you possibly can’t submit the shape with out filling them out), show error messages if some data is lacking and to validate information. We’ve got already talked concerning the needed instruments to take action.

For instance, you possibly can merely outline variables on your type fields and use the empty() perform to examine if they’ve values. After that, create a easy if/else assertion to both ship the submitted information or output an error message.

The subsequent step is to examine the submitted information for validity. For that, PHP affords numerous filters reminiscent of FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL to verify a submitted electronic mail handle has the precise format.

PHP Filters

Filters are used to validate and filter information that’s coming from insecure sources. As talked about, a standard instance is consumer enter. PHP affords numerous filter capabilities and constants for that:

Filter Capabilities

  • filter_has_var() — Checks if a variable of the required kind exists
  • filter_id() — Returns the ID belonging to a named filter
  • filter_input() — Retrieves a specified exterior variable by identify and optionally filters it
  • filter_input_array() — Pulls exterior variables and optionally filters them
  • filter_list() — Returns an inventory of all supported filters
  • filter_var_array() — Will get a number of variables and optionally filters them
  • filter_var() — Filters a variable with a specified filter

Filter Constants

  • FILTER_VALIDATE_BOOLEAN — Validates a boolean
  • FILTER_VALIDATE_EMAIL — Certifies an e-mail handle
  • FILTER_VALIDATE_FLOAT — Confirms a float
  • FILTER_VALIDATE_INT — Verifies an integer
  • FILTER_VALIDATE_IP — Validates an IP handle
  • FILTER_VALIDATE_REGEXP — Confirms a daily expression
  • FILTER_SANITIZE_EMAIL — Removes all unlawful characters from an e-mail handle
  • FILTER_SANITIZE_ENCODED — Removes/Encodes particular characters
  • FILTER_SANITIZE_MAGIC_QUOTES — Applies addslashes()
  • FILTER_SANITIZE_NUMBER_FLOAT — Removes all characters, besides digits, +- and .,eE
  • FILTER_SANITIZE_NUMBER_INT — Removes all characters besides digits and + –
  • FILTER_SANITIZE_SPECIAL_CHARS — Removes particular characters
  • FILTER_SANITIZE_FULL_SPECIAL_CHARS — Converts particular characters to HTML entities
  • FILTER_SANITIZE_STRING — Removes tags/particular characters from a string, various: FILTER_SANITIZE_STRIPPED
  • FILTER_SANITIZE_URL — Rids all unlawful characters from a URL
  • FILTER_UNSAFE_RAW —Do nothing, optionally strip/encode particular characters
  • FILTER_CALLBACK — Name a user-defined perform to filter information

HTTP Capabilities in PHP

PHP additionally has the performance to govern information despatched to the browser from the online server.

HTTP Capabilities

  • header() — Sends a uncooked HTTP header to the browser
  • headers_list() — A listing of response headers able to ship (or already despatched)
  • headers_sent() — Checks if and the place the HTTP headers have been despatched
  • setcookie() — Defines a cookie to be despatched together with the remainder of the HTTP headers
  • setrawcookie() — Defines a cookie (with out URL encoding) to be despatched alongside

Working with MySQL

Many platforms which can be based mostly on PHP work with a MySQL database within the background. For that cause, it’s vital to be aware of the capabilities that can help you work with them.

MySQL Capabilities

  • mysqli_affected_rows() — The variety of affected rows within the earlier MySQL operation
  • mysqli_autocommit() — Flip auto-committing database modifications on or off
  • mysqli_change_user() — Adjustments the consumer of the required database connection
  • mysqli_character_set_name() — The default character set for the database connection
  • mysqli_close() — Closes an open database connection
  • mysqli_commit() — Commits the present transaction
  • mysqli_connect_errno() — The error code from the final connection error
  • mysqli_connect_error() — The error description from the final connection error
  • mysqli_connect() — Opens a brand new connection to the MySQL server
  • mysqli_data_seek() — Strikes the outcome pointer to an arbitrary row within the outcome set
  • mysqli_debug() — Performs debugging operations
  • mysqli_dump_debug_info() — Dumps debugging data right into a log
  • mysqli_errno() — The final error code for the latest perform name
  • mysqli_error_list() — A listing of errors for the latest perform name
  • mysqli_error() — The final error description for the latest perform name
  • mysqli_fetch_all() — Fetches all outcome rows as an array
  • mysqli_fetch_array() — Fetches a outcome row as an associative, a numeric array, or each
  • mysqli_fetch_assoc() — Fetches a outcome row as an associative array
  • mysqli_fetch_field_direct() — Metadata for a single area as an object
  • mysqli_fetch_field() — The subsequent area within the outcome set as an object
  • mysqli_fetch_fields() — An array of objects that signify the fields in a outcome set
  • mysqli_fetch_lengths() — The lengths of the columns of the present row within the outcome set
  • mysqli_fetch_object() — The present row of a outcome set as an object
  • mysqli_fetch_row() — Fetches one row from a outcome set and returns it as an enumerated array
  • mysqli_field_count() — The variety of columns for the latest question
  • mysqli_field_seek() — Units the sphere cursor to the given area offset
  • mysqli_field_tell() — The place of the sphere cursor
  • mysqli_free_result() — Frees the reminiscence related to a outcome
  • mysqli_get_charset() — A personality set object
  • mysqli_get_client_info() — The MySQL consumer library model
  • mysqli_get_client_stats() — Returns consumer per-process statistics
  • mysqli_get_client_version() — The MySQL consumer library model as an integer
  • mysqli_get_connection_stats() — Statistics concerning the consumer connection
  • mysqli_get_host_info() — The MySQL server hostname and the connection kind
  • mysqli_get_proto_info() — The MySQL protocol model
  • mysqli_get_server_info() — Returns the MySQL server model
  • mysqli_get_server_version() — The MySQL server model as an integer
  • mysqli_info() — Returns details about probably the most just lately executed question
  • mysqli_init() — Initializes MySQLi and returns a useful resource to be used with mysqli_real_connect()
  • mysqli_insert_id() — Returns the auto-generated ID used within the final question
  • mysqli_kill() — Asks the server to kill a MySQL thread
  • mysqli_more_results() — Checks if there are extra outcomes from a multi question
  • mysqli_multi_query() — Performs a number of queries on the database
  • mysqli_next_result() — Prepares the following outcome set from mysqli_multi_query()
  • mysqli_num_fields() — The variety of fields in a outcome set
  • mysqli_num_rows() — The variety of rows in a outcome set
  • mysqli_options() — Units additional join choices and have an effect on conduct for a connection
  • mysqli_ping() — Pings a server connection or tries to reconnect if it has gone down
  • mysqli_prepare() — Prepares an SQL assertion for execution
  • mysqli_query() — Performs a question towards the database
  • mysqli_real_connect() — Opens a brand new connection to the MySQL server
  • mysqli_real_escape_string() — Escapes particular characters in a string to be used in an SQL assertion
  • mysqli_real_query() — Executes an SQL question
  • mysqli_reap_async_query() — Returns the outcome from async question
  • mysqli_refresh() — Refreshes tables or caches or resets the replication server data
  • mysqli_rollback() — Rolls again the present transaction for the database
  • mysqli_select_db() — Adjustments the default database for the connection
  • mysqli_set_charset() — Units the default consumer character set
  • mysqli_set_local_infile_default() — Unsets a user-defined handler for the LOAD LOCAL INFILE command
  • mysqli_set_local_infile_handler() — Units a callback perform for the LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE command
  • mysqli_sqlstate() — Returns the SQLSTATE error code for the final MySQL operation
  • mysqli_ssl_set() — Establishes safe connections utilizing SSL
  • mysqli_stat() — The present system standing
  • mysqli_stmt_init() — Initializes an announcement and returns an object to be used with mysqli_stmt_prepare()
  • mysqli_store_result() — Transfers a outcome set from the final question
  • mysqli_thread_id() — The thread ID for the present connection
  • mysqli_thread_safe() — Returns if the consumer library is compiled as thread-safe
  • mysqli_use_result() — Initiates the retrieval of a outcome set from the final question executed utilizing the mysqli_real_query()
  • mysqli_warning_count() — The variety of warnings from the final question within the connection

Date and Time

In fact, PHP capabilities for date and time shouldn’t be lacking from any PHP cheat sheet.

Date/Time Capabilities

  • checkdate() — Checks the validity of a Gregorian date
  • date_add() — Provides numerous days, months, years, hours, minutes and seconds to a date object
  • date_create_from_format() — Returns a formatted DateTime object
  • date_create() — Creates a brand new DateTime object
  • date_date_set() — Units a brand new date
  • date_default_timezone_get() — Returns the default timezone utilized by all capabilities
  • date_default_timezone_set() — Units the default timezone
  • date_diff() — Calculates the distinction between two dates
  • date_format() — Returns a date formatted in line with a particular format
  • date_get_last_errors() — Returns warnings or errors present in a date string
  • date_interval_create_from_date_string() — Units up a DateInterval from relative components of a string
  • date_interval_format() — Codecs an interval
  • date_isodate_set() — Units a date in line with ISO 8601 requirements
  • date_modify() — Modifies the timestamp
  • date_offset_get() — Returns the offset of the timezone
  • date_parse_from_format() — Returns an array with detailed details about a specified date, in line with a specified format
  • date_parse() — Returns an array with detailed details about a specified date
  • date_sub() — Subtracts days, months, years, hours, minutes and seconds from a date
  • date_sun_info() — Returns an array containing details about sundown/dawn and twilight start/finish for a specified day and site
  • date_sunrise() — The dawn time for a specified day and site
  • date_sunset() — The sundown time for a specified day and site
  • date_time_set() — Units the time
  • date_timestamp_get() — Returns the Unix timestamp
  • date_timestamp_set() — Units the date and time based mostly on a Unix timestamp
  • date_timezone_get() — Returns the time zone of a given DateTime object
  • date_timezone_set() — Units the time zone for a DateTime object
  • date() — Codecs a neighborhood date and time
  • getdate() — Date/time data of a timestamp or the present native date/time
  • gettimeofday() — The present time
  • gmdate() — Codecs a GMT/UTC date and time
  • gmmktime() — The Unix timestamp for a GMT date
  • gmstrftime() — Codecs a GMT/UTC date and time in line with locale settings
  • idate() — Codecs a neighborhood time/date as an integer
  • localtime() — The native time
  • microtime() — The present Unix timestamp with microseconds
  • mktime() — The Unix timestamp for a date
  • strftime() — Codecs a neighborhood time and/or date in line with locale settings
  • strptime() — Parses a time/date generated with strftime()
  • strtotime() — Transforms an English textual DateTime right into a Unix timestamp
  • time() — The present time as a Unix timestamp
  • timezone_abbreviations_list() — Returns an array containing dst, offset, and the timezone identify
  • timezone_identifiers_list() — An listed array with all timezone identifiers
  • timezone_location_get() — Location data for a specified timezone
  • timezone_name_from_abbr() — Returns the timezone identify from an abbreviation
  • timezone_name_get() — The identify of the timezone
  • timezone_offset_get() — The timezone offset from GMT
  • timezone_open() — Creates a brand new DateTimeZone object
  • timezone_transitions_get() — Returns all transitions for the timezone
  • timezone_version_get() — Returns the model of the timezonedb

Date and Time Formatting

  • d — 01 to 31
  • j — 1 to 31
  • D — Mon by way of Solar
  • l — Sunday by way of Saturday
  • N — 1 (for Mon) by way of 7 (for Sat)
  • w — 0 (for Solar) by way of 6 (for Sat)
  • m — Months, 01 by way of 12
  • n — Months, 1 by way of 12
  • F — January by way of December
  • M — Jan by way of Dec
  • Y — 4 digits yr (e.g. 2018)
  • y — Two digits yr (e.g. 18)
  • L — Defines whether or not it’s a bissextile year (1 or 0)
  • a — am and pm
  • A — AM and PM
  • g — Hours 1 by way of 12
  • h — Hours 01 by way of 12
  • G — Hours Zero by way of 23
  • H — Hours 00 by way of 23
  • i — Minutes 00 to 59
  • s — Seconds 00 to 59

PHP Errors

Lastly, for the instances that issues don’t go easily and you’ll want to discover out the place the issue lies, PHP additionally affords performance for errors.

Error Capabilities

  • debug_backtrace() — Used to generate a backtrace
  • debug_print_backtrace() — Prints a backtrace
  • error_get_last() — Will get the final error that occurred
  • error_log() — Sends an error message to the online server’s log, a file or a mail account
  • error_reporting() — Specifies which PHP errors are reported
  • restore_error_handler() — Reverts to the earlier error handler perform
  • restore_exception_handler() — Goes again to the earlier exception handler
  • set_error_handler() — Units a user-defined perform to deal with script errors
  • set_exception_handler() — Units an exception handler perform outlined by the consumer
  • trigger_error() — Generates a user-level error message, you may also use user_error()

Error Constants

  • E_ERROR — Deadly run-time errors that trigger the halting of the script and may’t be recovered from
  • E_WARNING — Non-fatal run-time errors, execution of the script continues
  • E_PARSE — Compile-time parse errors, ought to solely be generated by the parser
  • E_NOTICE — Run-time notices that point out a attainable error
  • E_CORE_ERROR — Deadly errors at PHP initialization, like an E_ERROR in PHP core
  • E_CORE_WARNING — Non-fatal errors at PHP startup, just like E_WARNING however in PHP core
  • E_COMPILE_ERROR — Deadly compile-time errors generated by the Zend Scripting Engine
  • E_COMPILE_WARNING — Non-fatal compile-time errors by the Zend Scripting Engine
  • E_USER_ERROR — Deadly user-generated error, set by the programmer utilizing trigger_error()
  • E_USER_WARNING — Non-fatal user-generated warning
  • E_USER_NOTICE — Person-generated discover by trigger_error()
  • E_STRICT — Strategies by PHP to enhance your code (must be enabled)
  • E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR — Catchable deadly error caught by a user-defined deal with
  •  E_DEPRECATED — Allow this to obtain warnings a couple of code which isn’t future-proof
  • E_USER_DEPRECATED — Person-generated warning for deprecated code
  • E_ALL — All errors and warnings besides E_STRICT


Understanding your manner round PHP is a good suggestion for anybody excited about net design and net growth. Particularly if you wish to dive deeper into the technical points of creating your personal web site.

The PHP cheat sheet above gives you with an summary over some central components of PHP. Bookmark it as a reference or use it as a springboard to study extra concerning the programming language. We sincerely hope you’ve discovered it a helpful useful resource.

In case you have any addition to the PHP cheat sheet, please don’t hesitate to tell us within the feedback part beneath!